Water is the biggest necessity of human beings, animals and plants because water is essential to sustain quality of life on earth. As ASIA is the world’s most populated continent so water scarcity is a serious issue here. Asian Countries are rapidly moving from water stressed countries to water scarce countries mainly because of increasing population, poor water management, excessive usage and pollution. In an agricultural region like Pakistan, water is crucial for survival.
A recent study showed that Pakistan is one of the 30 countries of world, facing severe water crisis.
Pakistan is one of the most poorest country but it is one the richest when it comes to population increasing capabilities.
The population rate of Pakistan is increasing at the rate of 3.2%. As more population means less water and less water will ultimately affect the agricultural sector of Pakistan.
Hence water is becoming a diminishing source in Pakistan.
Lets have a look on water resources of Pakistan,their utilization, causes of water scarcity and its remedies.
Since God has blessed Pakistan with abandoned water resources,the main resources of water in Pakistan are rainfall, DAMS, underground water and water available in rivers.
UTILIZATION OF WATER:
- Industrial usage.
- Power generation.
- Household purposes.
CAUSES OF WATER SCARCITY:
- URBANIZATION/ INDUSTRIALIZATION:
Increased industrial use of water is a another major cause of water scarcity. The dams constructed for urban water supply are inadequate because of the increasing population.
- REDUCED STORAGE CAPACITY:
The existing storage dams are a few in number and they are losing their storage capacities rapidly.so it has become a contributing factor in water scarcity.
- BAD RAINFALL/SNOW FALL:
Pakistan is facing severe rainfall and snowfall shortage due to climate change.
It seems like the dry spell is gradually at increase.
IMPACT ON ECONOMY AND SOCIETY:
- DECREASED CROPS:
As Less water means poor agricultural yield or decreased crops so it will contribute in making us dependent on other countries to meet our food requirement.
Less agricultural yield will become a reason of people heading towards cities, which will further increase the unemployment.
- ORCHARDS EXPORT:
Orchards Export will decrease due to water crisis.
- LIVESTOCK RAISING:
Livestock raising will become difficult due to shortage of water.
- HYDRO POWER:
- DISPUTE AMONG PROVINCES:
Water shortage would cause disputes among the provinces over the issue of water distribution.
due to this issue National integrity of Pakistan will be effected . and Conflict among the provinces will increase.
- HEALTH ISSUES:
Health issues will be the main concern of Pakistani people because they will be lacking the availability of pure drinking water.
- ENVIRONMENTAL FATALITIES:
Environmental fatalities occur due to the damage to the wildlife, loss of bio-diversity, air and water quality caused by drought.
- Raise awareness about careful and responsible usage of water among masses.For this purpose awareness campaigns, advertisements and social media websites can be used.
- Invest in repairing the existing storage dams.
- Increase the water storage reservoirs. For this purpose Construction of following dams should start immediately:
RAISED MANGLA DAM
GOMAL ZAM DAM.
3. To over come the water crisis, proper use of water in agriculture sector is essential.
4. Development of effective water policies.
5. Proper planning of water budget.
6. Proper use of irrigation water. For this purpose adopt effective irrigation methods like trickling,sprinkling, Basin and drip irrigation.
7. Develop a strategy to reduce water loss through seepage, leaching, percolation by lining of canals.
8. Decrease the excessive pumpage of underground water.